Brian and Josette Juden

Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat (1925-2014) Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat, from her 1942 Carte d'Identité
Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat
From her 1942 Carte d'Identité
Brian Valentine Juden (1920-2008) Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat
Brian Valentine Juden (1920-2008)
Mme Tortat, Marie-Josèphe Tortat, Georges Tortat, Raymond Tortat
Mme Tortat, Marie-Josèphe, Georges, Raymond
Mme Tortat, Georges Tortat, Brian Juden, Josette Juden
Mme Tortat, Georges Tortat, Brian, Josette
Josette Juden and Brian Juden
Josette and Brian
Brian Juden and Josette Juden, Wedding Day, 29th October 1955 Josette Juden and Brian Juden, Wedding Day, 29th October 1955
Wedding Day, 29th October 1955
Brian Juden and Josette Juden, Wedding Day, 29th October 1955
Wedding Day, 29th October 1955
Front row: Charles Henry Juden (Brian's father), Lilly Juden (Elizabeth, Brian's mother),
Brian, Josette, Mme Tortat (Josette's mother), Graham (Brian's nephew), Marion (Brian's niece)
Back row, third from left: Raymond Tortat (Josette's brother), Georges Tortat (Josette's father),
Christine (Brian's niece), Muriel Juden (wife of Brian's brother)
The wedding photographs were probably taken by Brian's brother, Eric Juden.
Josette Juden Brian Juden
Josette Juden and Brian Juden
Georges Tortat, Mme Tortat, Josette Juden, Brian Juden, Raymond Tortat
Georges Tortat, Mme Tortat, Josette, Brian, Raymond Tortat
Brian Juden, in the 1980s
In the 1980s
Josette Juden and Brian Juden, 2nd August 1995
2nd August 1995

Curriculum Vitae of Brian Valentine Juden

Date of birth: 14th February 1920 at New Malden, Surrey.

Civil status: Married, no children.

Schooling: 1930-1936: Surbiton County School.

War service: 1940-1945 (Army).


1945-1948: French Department, University of Manchester
1948-1949: Education, French Department, University of Manchester
1949-1953: Sorbonne (Directeur de Thèse, Pierre Moreau)


B.A. Hons. French II 1, Manchester 1948.
Teachers Diploma, Manchester 1949.
Master of Arts, Manchester 1951. (Subject: l'Oeuvre lyrique de Gerard de Nerval).
Docteur-ès-Lettres 1971 (two theses -
major: Traditions orphiques et tendances mystiques dans le romantisme français, 1800-1855
secondary: La France littéraire de Charles Malo (1832 - 1839) et de Joseph Challamel (1840 - 1843)
Répertoire, présentation et notes.
Mention trés honorable à l'unanimité.

Posts held:

1954-1970: Assistant Lecturer and subsequently Lecturer, University of Sheffield
1970-date: Professor and Head of Department, Royal Holloway College, University of London

CoursesThesis supervisionResearch interestsIn preparationPublicationsLectures

Ideology and Religion in French Literature

Ideology and Religion in French Literature
Essays in honour of Brian Juden
by Pupils, Colleagues and Friends
edited by Harry Cockerham and Esther Ehrman
Porphyrogenitus, 1989

ISBN 1-871328-02-0


The present volume seeks to honour Professor Brian Juden for his work as a scholar and teacher in the field of French language, literature and thought.

At the reception held in his Department, in 1985, to mark his retirement as the final holder of the University of London Chair of French at Royal Holloway College, there was scarcely any feeling of things drawing to a close. So far from putting away his pens, Brian was already concentrating his formidable energies on his work as a member of the Lausanne-based committee for the edition of Benjamin Constant's works. And rather than presiding over the end of a Department, he had spent his last year in post as the first and only Chairman of the two Departments of French about to be merged in the Royal Holloway and Bedford New College — a task to which he brought those personal qualities of indomitable good cheer, optimism and constant availability to colleagues and students alike which served him, then as before, in what can be that most difficult of all achievements for a Head of a University Department: the creation of a positive, harmonious and happy working atmosphere.

Enviable perseverance and energy, physical every bit as much as intellectual, have marked Brian Juden's career since its beginning. How many colleagues have been persuaded to disdain public transport and instead walk with him, as the present writer has often between Waterloo Station and Bloomsbury, dashing into shops and being tempted down interesting and picturesque side streets along the way? However many, they must surely all have faced the same challenge in endeavouring to match his stride and to keep up with his flow of erudite and genial conversation, whilst retaining a modicum of control over their pulse-rate and breathing. In a comparable way, to trace his career is to appreciate all over again, and to risk being humbled by the example he sets in combining persistent, long and exacting pursuit of a scholarly objective with utter disdain for all convenient fast routes to publication.

That patience and resolve are the more remarkable in that his career, as happened with others of his generation, was delayed by war. Born in Surrey, where he received his schooling before going on to see wartime service in the RAMC and the Royal Artillery, he read French at Manchester then went to Paris with a French Government scholarship for what was to be a stay of five years. The first fruits of that period were his MA thesis on Nerval, written under Eugène Vinaver's supervision, and his first published article, in which he quoted in French translation a passage from Plato (Meno) which seemed 'to have haunted Gérard de Nerval', and which included the following: '[…] rien n'empêche que, si l'on se souvient d'une seule chose, ce que l'on appelle acquérir une science, on puisse retrouver toutes les autres si l'on a du courage et si on ne se laisse pas accabler de fatigue par la recherche'.

As though in obedience to this text, having changed his registration for the doctorat d'Université to that for the doctorat ès lettres, under the supervision of Pierre Moreau and Pierre-Georges Castex, he began the long haul which was to culminate, after sixteen happy years at Sheffield, in his appointment to London in 1970 and the publication of his doctoral theses — for the labours enshrined in which a fitting epigraph might be a phrase in the conclusion to his monumental primary thesis which sums up the Romantic ambition brought to mind by Orpheus: 's'emparer de l'omniscience'. These publications and the subsequent flow of articles and reviews extended at home and abroad his reputation, already well established in French circles, as one of the few truly eminent authorities on the links between French literary creativity and political, religious and aesthetic thought.

Such is the scope of Brian Juden's learning, not to mention his astuteness as a critic, that the most fertile genius for titles would have been hard put to it to find one to cover, neatly and attractively, the diversity of interest of his work. Against our title it will no doubt be objected that its singular nouns are restricting and that the impact upon French imaginative writing, from the Renaissance onwards, of mythologies and currents of thought in their diversity, as much as and more than religion or ideology, is the focus of his work, which is humanist in spirit. It can only be pleaded in reply that our title is to be broadly interpreted, that its singulars are intended to include the plurals, and that these things have clearly been understood by the contributors and acknowledged by them collectively in the variety of their responses — which testify to the depth and, emanating as they do from nine nations, to the geographical range of the esteem in which Brian Juden is held both as scholar and man.


Royal Holloway and Bedford New College,
University of London


The members of the Editorial Committee wish to express their gratitude to Monsieur Frédéric Texier, Attaché du Livre in the French Embassy's Service culturel in London, for the Embassy's financial support, in the form of a most generous subscription to the present publication.

For their dedicated work in the preparation of this volume, the Editors are indebted to the members of the Editorial Advisory Committee: Jean Barron, Jean Bloch, Patricia Harry, Monique L'Huillier, Pauline McLynn, Wendy Mercer, Norma Rinsler, Michael Routledge, Malcolm Smith.

The Eulogy for Brian Valentine Juden

Sunninghill is no doubt home to many people of distinction in their own fields of endeavour, but few, I guess, have achieved greater eminence than did Brian.

I got to know him in the 1970s, when he came from Sheffield University to Royal Holloway College (as it was then called) to take up a University of London Chair of French.

I well remember the apprehension with which his arrival was awaited, especially by the fair number of comparatively young staff in the French Department.

Hardly any of us had actually met Brian, and so knew him only by his formidable professional reputation.

I remember the outgoing Professor of French (a Frenchman, leaving for a Chair at Yale) saying to me that Brian was 'the foremost of all the British specialists in 19th-century French literature and thought'.

And it's fair to say that he was even better known in academic circles in Paris, where he met Josette and took his French state doctorate - a formidable undertaking, requiring the submission of two theses, and usually, as with Brian, completed in middle life.

The respect and esteem in which he was held by his profession may be gauged by the facts that a volume of studies was published in his honour when he retired, that more than twenty scholars contributed essays to the volume, and that these scholars came from no fewer than nine nations.

The distinction Brian achieved is the more remarkable in that his career was held up by the war, in which he saw service in the Royal Artillery and the RAMC.

But for all his vast learning and encyclopaedic knowledge of French literary history, we found in Brian the most human and genial and approachable of professors.

Brian was no ivory tower figure. His intense curiosity about the world around him was reflected in the extraordinary range of his outside interests.

He shared with Josette a great love of gardening. He told me once that he and Josette had decided after reflection not to live in Datchet, because they had been told the soil there wasn't good.

He was the most versatile of conversationalists. I swear, for example, that much of what I know about cars came from conversations with him. He remarked (probably pulling my leg, as was his way), that he had been a motor engineer in earlier life.

And to walk with him as I did often from Waterloo Station to university meetings in Bloomsbury (Brian was a Londoner by birth, but he didn't like the tube), was a whole education in the byways and hidden corners and interesting buildings of London - as well as being a severe physical challenge as you struggled to keep up with his bounding stride.

And yet, for all that, Brian was an unassuming man. And for all his enthusiasm for his subject, and wide-ranging interests, one always had the feeling that, as with many a successful man, his home life was what was most important to him, and that home with Josette was where he was happiest.

His devotion to Josette was always very clear to all of us.

With Josette and the rest of his family, we mourn his loss. A wonderfully stimulating companion and friend. He will be sadly missed by his many friends and former colleagues, and by the generations of university students now scattered around the world whose lives he enriched - as by the readers (also around the world) whose studies he illumined, and will continue to illumine, by his writing.

Harry Cockerham, 8th August 2008

Brian Juden's Service in the Second World War

In the first part of the Second World War Brian served in the Royal Artillery, in the tunnels under Dover Castle, using his maths skills for gun-aiming work. The poor conditions in the tunnels gave him respiratory problems, for which he was sent to Smallfield Hospital near Redhill. This hospital was staffed by the Royal Army Medical Corps. It was presumably during or after his treatment as a patient that Brian served in the R.A.M.C.

Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat

Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat, whom we knew as Josette, was born on the 5th of June 1925 in Beton-Bazoches, which is about forty miles to the east of Paris, in the department of Seine-et-Marne. Her family came from the department of Indre in central France but they were living near Paris when Josette was born. Her father, Marie Joseph Georges Tortat, known as Georges, was born on the 5th of January 1899 in Saint-Gaultier, in Indre, and her mother, Berthe Marie Henriette Tortat née Pouron, was born on the 4th of December 1894 in Châteauroux, also in Indre.

The parents of Josette's father Georges Tortat were Jean-Baptiste Charles Alfred Tortat (1868-1954), known as Alfred, and Marie Louise Julie Tortat née Villiere, known as Marie.

Josette's family were lawyers: her father Georges, brother Raymond, grandfather Alfred (1868-1954) and great-grandfather Leonce (1839-1890) were all lawyers, and Josette completed a law degree too.

Her father bought a legal practice near Bordeaux just before the Second World War, and Josette moved there with her parents and her brother Raymond. She was fourteen years old at the start of the war, and went to school in Bordeaux. Her brother was two years younger than she was. He had been born on the 23rd of August 1927 in Saint-Gaultier, in Indre, where his father had been born.

Josette said it was not very nice living in an occupied town. Bordeaux was used as a naval port by the Germans. She and her brother sometimes went to the port to look at the big German ships, although they were not supposed to. When the allies were bombing the German port and the German ships, the people of Bordeaux hoped the aircraft were English, not American, 'because the Americans dropped their bombs all over the place and the English were more accurate'.

Josette studied law at the University of Bordeaux from 1944 to 1947. After she graduated, she moved to Cité International University in Paris (Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris) where she studied English and worked as a secretary. She was staying in the American halls; her future husband Brian was staying in the English halls. Brian had been born on the 14th of February 1920 in Merton, Surrey.

Josette completed one year of her English degree before marrying Brian Juden on the 29th of October 1955 in the Holy Cross Church in West Barnes. Josette's parents and brother attended the wedding. It was Brian who shortened the name Marie-Josèphe Christiane to Josette.

Brian had become an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Sheffield in 1954, and so Sheffield was where they made their first home. Josette taught French to A level students at the girls' High School. Brian was promoted from Assistant Lecturer to Lecturer.

In 1970, when Brian was appointed Professor and Head of Department at Royal Holloway College in Egham, Surrey, he and Josette moved first to Guildford and then, in 1971, to Sunninghill. Brian retired in 1985.

Brian died on the 31st of July 2008. Josette died on the 30th of November 2014.

Birth Certificate of Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat, 1925

Le cinq juin mil neuf cent vingt-cinq, huit heures, est née à Beton-Bazoches Marie Josèphe Christiane, du sexe feminin, de Marie Joseph Georges Tortat, né à Saint-Gaultier (Indre) le cinq janvier mil huit cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, pere dénotaire et de Berthe Marie Henriette Pouron, née à Châteauroux (Indre) le quatre décembre mil huit cent quatre-vingt quatorze, sans profession, son épouse, domiciliés à Beton-Bazoches. Dressé le six juin mil neuf cent vingt-cinq, quatorze heures trente minutes, sur la déclaration du père. Après lecture faite avons signè le dèclarant et Nous Ernest Alexandre Cherolle, Maire de Beton-Bazoches.
Tortat     E. Cherolle

[On the fifth June, nineteen hundred and twenty-five, eight hours, was born in Beton-Bazoches Marie Josèphe Christiane, of the female sex, of Marie Joseph Georges Tortat, born in Saint-Gaultier (Indre) on the fifth January eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, denoted father and of Berthe Marie Henriette Pouron, born in Châteauroux (Indre) on the fourth December eighteen hundred and ninety-four, unemployed, his wife, living in Beton-Bazoches. Drawn up the sixth June nineteen hundred and twenty-five, fourteen hours thirty minutes, on the declaration of the father. After reading have signed the declarant and we Ernest Alexandre Cherolle, Mayor of Beton-Bazoches.]

General School Examination of Brian Valentine Juden, 1935

University of London
This is to Certify that Brian Valentine Juden
Matriculated in the University of London as from June in the year 1936,
having at the General School Examination Midsummer 1935
reached the standard required for Matriculation in the following subjects—

History (English and European)
Elementary Mathematics (lower standard)

[signed] Principal.

Motor Car Examinations of Brian Valentine Juden, 1937

Certificate: Motor Car Technical Drawing & Calculations, Distinction, Motor Car Mechanics
Surrey County Council
Wimbledon District Higher Education Committee
Wimbledon Technical College
Gladstone Road, S.W.19.
This is to certify that
Brian V. Juden
has made satisfactory attendance at a course of instruction
and passed the College Examination in
Motor Car Technical Drawing & Calculations I
Motor Car Mechanics I
Herbert J. Holloway Chairman
… Principal
Date June, 1937.

Law Degree of Marie-Josèphe Christiane Tortat, 1947

Université de Bordeaux
Faculté de Droit

Bordeaux, le 22 décembre 1947

Le Secrétaire de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Bordeaux, soussigné, certifie que Mlle Tortat, Marie, Josèphe, Christiane, né le 5 juin 1925, à Beton-Bazoches, département de la Seine et Marne, a subi, avec succés, devant la dite Faculté, les épreuves du 3e examen de la licence en droit et qu'il a obtenu le diplome correspôndant, à la date du 5 novembre 1947

Le Secrétaire
M. Costes

[The Secretary of the Faculty of Law of the University of Bordeaux, the undersigned, certifies that Mlle Tortat, Marie, Josèphe, Christiane, born 5 June 1925, in Beton-Bazoches, Seine et Marne, successfully underwent before the said Faculty, the tests of the third review of the law degree and has obtained the corresponding diploma, as of 5 November 1947.]

Université de Bordeaux
Faculté de Droit

Bordeaux le 4 décembre 1956

Je soussigné, André Garrigou-Lagrange, Doyen de la Faculté de Droit de Bordeaux, certifie que Madame Juden née Marie Josèphe Tortat a suivi les cours de la Faculté de Droit de Bordeaux de 1944 à 1947 et qu’elle a eu une scolarité donnant satisfaction par son travail et sa conduite; elle a été en d’autres termes, une très bonne étudiante pendant son passage à la Faculté.

La Doyen;
Signé : A. Garrigou-Lagrange

[I, André Garrigou-Lagrange, Dean of the Law School of Bordeaux, certify that Mrs. Juden born Marie Josèphe Tortat followed the course of the Bordeaux Law School from 1944 to 1947 and she had a satisfactory education by her work and conduct; she was in other words, a very good student during her time at the Faculty.]

Bachelor of Arts of Brian Valentine Juden, 1948

The Victoria University of Manchester
Degree of Bachelor of Arts
It is hereby certified that Brian Valentine Juden
has satisfied the Examiners in the Final Examination
in the Honours School of French Studies for the above-named Degree,
being placed in the Second Class,
and has been duly admitted as a Bachelor of Arts of this University.
W Mansfield Cooper Registrar
(The Bachelor is requested to sign here.) } Brian Juden
July 2nd, 1948

The Victoria University of Manchester
It is hereby certified that Brian Valentine Juden
has been duly admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts of this University.
(Honours School of French Studies Class II Div. i.)
(July 2nd, 1948).
W Mansfield Cooper Registrar
Machester, July 13th, 1949.
Brian Juden

Teacher's Diploma of Brian Valentine Juden, 1949

The Victoria University of Manchester
This is to certify that the Teacher's Diploma
was after examination awarded to Brian Valentine Juden
Dated the Fifth of July 1949.
Holder's Signature Brian Juden
W Mansfield Cooper Registrar.

Master of Arts of Brian Valentine Juden, 1951

The Victoria University of Manchester
Degree of Master of Arts
It is hereby certified that Brian Valentine Juden
has satisfied the Examiners in the Examination for the above-named Degree,
and has been duly admitted as a Master of Arts of this University
in the subject of French.
Vincent Knowles Registrar.
(The Master is requested to sign here.) } Brian Juden
July 13th, 1951.

Reference for Marie-Josèphe Tortat, 1953

Université de Paris
Collège Franco-Britannique
Cité Universitaire
9, Boulevard Jourdan (XIV)

Paris 30 mars 1953

Je soussigné A. Desclos, Directeur du Collège Franco-Britannique, avant de quitter la direction de ce Collège, certifie que Melle Marie Josèphe Tortat a été employee au Collège comme Secrétaire de Direction du 1er Juillet 1951 à ce jour.

Melle Tortat est une jeune fille d’excellente education et de tenue parfait qui a fait de bonnes études supérieures d’anglais. Elle a une intelligence vive et claire, servie par une excellente mémoire. Elle est méthodique et ordonnée dans son travail. Elle est très bonne dactylographe et sans être sténographe, prend à la dictée la correspondence en français et anglais.

Elle parle et écrit l’anglais avec facilité et correction.

À côté de son travail de secretariat, Melle Tortat, depuis la mort de notre Econome il y a quelques mois, assure avec soin et exactitude le lourd service de la caisse de cette maison de 300 étudiants. Elle avait bien voulu aussi s’en charger pendant les grandes vacances, lors du passage de nos 1500 résidants temporaires.

A cette double tâche s’ajoute le travail constant de l’acceuil des nombreux étudiants et visiteurs demandant des renseignements et des conseils. Elle s’en acquitte avec une bonne grâce, un tact et un savoir faire qui contribuent grandement à créer l’atmosphère de contentement qui convient à cette maison et qui lui ont gagné l’affection et le respect de tous.

A. Desclos

[I, the undersigned A. Desclos, Director of the Franco-British College, before leaving the leadership of the College, certify that Miss Marie Josephe Tortat was employed at the College as Executive Secretary 1 July 1951 to date.

Miss Tortat is a young girl of excellent education and perfect behaviour who made good graduate English studies. She has a bright, clear intelligence, served by an excellent memory. She is methodical and orderly in her work. She is a very good typist and without being a stenographer, takes dictation of correspondence in French and English.

She speaks and writes English with ease and correctness.

Besides her secretarial work, Miss Tortat, since the death of our Bursar a few months ago, has been providing carefully and accurately the heavy funding service of this house of 300 students. She had also wished to take charge during major holidays during the passage of our 1500 temporary residents.

To this double task is added the constant work of the home of the many students and visitors seeking information and advice. She fulfills it with good grace, tact and know-how that contribute greatly to create the atmosphere of contentment that suits the house and has won the affection and respect of all.]

William Charles Macready et les comédiens anglais à Paris (1844-1845),
La Revue des Lettres Modernes

[In collaboration with Jean Richer],
William Charles Macready et les comédiens anglais à Paris (1844-1845),
La Revue des Lettres Modernes, Nos. 74-75, Paris, Minard, 1962-63.

[William Charles Macready and the English comedians in Paris (1844-1845),
The Journal of Modern Literature]

Traditions Orphiques et Tendances Mystiques
dans le Romantisme Français (1800-1855),
by Brian Juden

Traditions Orphiques et Tendances Mystiques dans le Romantisme Français (1800-1855), by Brian Juden
Brian Juden
Professeur de langue et littérature françaises à l'Université de Londres
Traditions Orphiques et Tendances Mystiques dans le Romantisme Français (1800-1855)
Ouvrage publié avec le concours du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Paris, Editions Klincksieck, 1971
[seconde édition revue et augmentée, Genève, Slatkine, 1982]

[Professor of French language and literature at the University of London
Orphic Traditions and Mystics Trends in French Romanticism (1800-1855)
Book published with the support of the National Center for Scientific Research]

Doctorat d'État ès Lettres of Brian Valentine Juden

Certificate: Doctorat d'État ès Lettres et Sciences Humaines
Université de Paris-Sorbonne
(Lettres et Civilisations)
Doctorat d'État ès Lettres
et Sciences Humaines
Le Secrétaire général de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne (Lettres et Civilisations) soussigné, certifie que
Monsieur Brian Juden
né à New Malden, Surrey (Angleterre)
le 14 fevrier 1920, a été jugé digne du grade de
Doctorat d'État ès Lettres et Sciences Humaines
le 2 Octobre 1971, avec la mention très honorable
Cette attestation, pour être valable, ne doit être ni surchargée ni grattée.
L'Université ne la délivre qu'une fois. Les Maires et les Commissaires de police
français, les Agents diplomatiques et consulaires de France à l'étranger peuvent en
délivrer des copies certifiées conformes.
Le Secrétaire général :
Pour le Secrétaire général Adjoint :
Mlle S. Bonnefoy

University of Paris-Sorbonne
(Literature and Culture)
State Doctorate of Literature and Humanities
The Secretary General of the University of Paris-Sorbonne (Literature and Culture) hereby certifies that
Mr. Brian Juden
born in New Malden, Surrey (England)
February 14, 1920, was deemed worthy of the degree of
State Doctorate of Arts and Humanities
2 October 1971, with high honours
This certificate, to be valid, must not be overwritten or erased.
The University issues it once. Mayors and French police commissioners,
diplomatic and consular agents of France abroad can issue certified copies.
The Secretary-General :
For the Deputy Secretary-General :
Miss S. Bonnefoy

La France Littéraire de Charles Malo (1832-1839)
et de Pierre Joseph Challamel (1840-1843),
by Brian Juden

La France Littéraire de Charles Malo (1832-1839) et de Pierre Joseph Challamel (1840-1843), by Brian Juden
Brian Juden
La France Littéraire de Charles Malo (1832-1839)
et de Pierre Joseph Challamel (1840-1843)
Répertoire, Présentation et Notes
Libraire Honoré Champion, Éditeur
7, Qui Malaquais – Paris

[The Literary France of Charles Malo (1832-1839)
and of Pierre Joseph Challamel (1840-1843)
Directory, Introduction and Notes
Library Honoured Champion, Editor]

Memorial Stone for Brian Valentine Juden (1920-2008) First Memorial Stone for Brian Valentine Juden (1920-2008) and Marie-Josèphe Christiane Juden née Tortat (1925-2014), known as Josette Juden Second Memorial Stone for Brian Valentine Juden (1920-2008) and Marie-Josèphe Christiane Juden née Tortat (1925-2014), known as Josette Juden

Memorial Stone for Professor Emeritus Brian Valentine Juden MA DèsL (14 February 1920 to 31 July 2008) and, later, Marie-Josèphe Christiane Juden née Tortat (5 June 1925 to 30 November 2014), known as Josette Juden. 'Josette' was initially spelt incorrectly with a double 's'. The memorial stone was replaced, with 'Josette' spelt correctly, 'Emeritus' written after 'Professor', which is more usual, and an accent on the 'e' of 'DèsL'. Regrettably it appears to be an acute accent and not the grave accent that it should be.